Dragons are completely random in Skyrim and they don’t have any fixed location. However those dragons who are protecting Dragon Shout Word Walls are fixed to one location and you can find them easily as their locations is indicated by a small dragon on the mini-map. You can find these dragons and get the Unique Shouts on the following locations.
Ancient’s Accent is a dragon location found in Southern Skyrim just after going through BoneChill Passage. It should come up on your Radar. You’ll find one word of Animal Allegiance.
Autumn Watchtower is the location found in Southern Skyrim. You will encounter a dragon in South of Iverstead or further south of Rift Imperial Camp by the towers in the mountains. You’ll find one word of Marked for Death.
BoneStrewn Crest is the dragon Location in Eastern Skyrim. You will encounter a Dragon in the south of Windhelm in the middle of the swampland up to the top of the large hill. You’ll find one word of Frost Breath.
The Dragontooth Crater is a dragon Location in the western Skyrim. You may encounter a dragon in the large mountain area between Markarth and Soltitude in the northwest of Skyrim. You’ll find one word of Elemental Fury.
Eldersblood peak is the dragon location is the southern Skyrim. You can find a dragon by travelling South West of Morthal. You’ll find one word of Disarm.
Lost Tongue Overlook is the dragon location in the southern Skyrim. You will encounter a Dragon during a Bounty mission that you can take from Wilhelm in Ivarstead’s Inn. You’ll find one word of Dismaying Shout.
Northwind Summit is a dragon location in the Eastern Skyrim. You can find a dragon by travelling South of Windhelm or North of Riften. You’ll find one word of Aurora Whisper
Shearpoint is a dragon location in Skyrim. You can find a dragon on the top of the mountain west of Windhelm. You’ll find three words of a shout called Throw Voice.
Skyborn altar is a dragon location in the central Skyrim. You can find it by travelling up the mountains East of Morhtal. You’ll find one word of Frost Breath.